• Daniel Skak Mazhari-Jensen
4. term, Music Therapy, Master (Master Programme)
Background: Aerobic exercise has been suggested to play an important role in cardiovascular fitness, cognitive abilities, quality of life, and other health outcomes among stroke patients (Han et al., 2017). In clinical recommendations from the Danish Health Organization (Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2014a), cardiorespiratory exercise is recommended with the highest available level of recommendation. As a moderate level of fitness, endurance, and mobility is necessary for engaging in the recommended physical intensity levels, such exercise might be a catalyst for improving other aspects of patients’ physical functioning. However, the intensity demand of physical training requires dedication and motivation from the patient and can in reality be hard to achieve. Especially the higher intensities in the therapeutic window is hard to obtain (Billinger et al., 2014). Music has in previous studies been shown to invigorate healthy subjects and athletes, thereby enhancing mood, increasing motivation, and performance, as well as attenuating bodily discomfort (Bigliassi, Karageorghis, Wright, Orgs, & Nowicky, 2017; Karageorghis & Priest, 2012a, 2012b). Considering these findings, music interventions may be hypothesized as a suitable and cost-efficient tool for supporting an efficient and motivating exercise session in inpatient stroke survivors’ neurorehabilitation. Objective: This article based master’s thesis investigated the effects of music-supported aerobic exercise for inpatient stroke survivors in group-based aerobic exercise. The objective was to compare the immediate affective, experiential, and behavioral effects of listening to two different music conditions: local radio and a tailored playlist, compared to a non-music control condition. Methods: A three-armed crossover within-subject design was used. Three groups consisting of 5-8 participants participated in three weekly exercise sessions for three weeks. The condition order was randomly assigned to each group. A total of 19 participants were included and analyzed. Outcome measures consisted of training duration (seconds), duration of recommended intensity (≥40%HRR), affective valence state using the Feeling Scale (Hardy & Rejeski, 1989), the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, and rating the overall experience of the exercise sessions. The tailored music listening intervention was based on scientific recommendations (Karageorghis, Terry, Lane, Bishop, & Priest, 2012) and a meta-theoretical framework (Clark, Baker, & Taylor, 2016b). Results: Results show significant differences between pre-post scores in Feeling Scale for music conditions (Radio: p = .036; Playlist: p = .042), whereas non-music condition did not (p = .369), however, no difference was found between conditions. Only radio condition showed statistically significant differences between non-music control condition in overall experience (p = .018), with playlist showing strong trend (p = .057), and no difference between music conditions. No differences was found in Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion between any conditions. Significant differences comparing both music conditions to non-music condition showed prolonged training duration (p < .0001, Radio: β = 116.405; Playlist: β = 115.849). However, a ceiling effect restricts findings and makes the effect size and beta estimate misguiding. The study found significant difference for duration of recommended intensity when considering participants’ Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gait score as a predictor. This showed prolonged duration of recommended training intensity for the playlist condition (p < .0001, β = 534.358). In addition, a strong tendency in the interaction effect for participants with lower gait functioning measured by the FIM was found (p = .057). However, there was no significant difference observed in the univariate test based on marginal means. Conclusion: This study supports the hypotheses of music enhancing mood and heighten exercise experience in aerobic exercise for inpatient stroke survivors. Correspondingly, music may prolong the training duration of patients with difficulties to endure a full training session, but insufficient data restricted the findings. Only tailored music was found to increase duration in recommended cardiovascular intensity, when FIM gait scores were applied as a predictor. No difference was found in perceived exertion. This pilot study contributes to the empirical research supporting the beneficial effects of music in clinical aerobic exercise, lending support to further investigation of music in cardiorespiratory exercise for (inpatient) stroke survivors.
Publication date2019
Number of pages80
External collaboratorNorth Denmark Regional Hospital
No Name vbn@aub.aau.dk
ID: 295773119