• Kasper Rothaus
  • Jens Dahl Thomsen
4. semester, It, Læring og Organisatorisk Omstilling, Kandidat (Kandidatuddannelse)
This master thesis seeks to understand, how learning processes are created in ubiquitous and pervasive city experiences mediated through a smartphone application. It is mainly a design project, meaning that the main focus is to answer our research question through analysing a designed product, The Ubitour App. We have, in cooperation with conteptograph, a software company, designed and produced an actual working prototype, that serves as one side of the app, the other being realized through a paper prototype. The two sides of the app is, one, the Builder part, which lets the user design their own Ubitours and a live Implementation part. A Ubitour is a sort of guided tour, that utilizes a variety of media to present content, based on specific GPS coordinates. In this iteration of the project we have tried to understand the designed artifact as a storytelling tool. A set amount of tools were provided for the user to play around with in the story creation, being media elements; video, audio, text, pictures, and a range of gamification elements (Deterding et al., 2011); Choice, time and score. The idea is the user can create any type of Ubitour, ranging from classic audio guides, to complex narrative based games, all naturally utilizing the surrounding environment. The content of this specific design takes its inspiration from the field of digitally guided tours in the tourism business and the world of digital storytelling, that is a well established approach to a range of transformational activities, ranging from school curricula based writing and story creation processes to multicultural skill development across different nations. The research design is inspired by the Design-based research (DBR) approach (Brown, 1992, Collins, 1992, Barab & Squire, 2004, Christensen et al, 2012), that uses several iterations of design before reaching a proofed and properly tested product. We build our own DBR-model and present in this project the first iteration leading into a suggestion for the next. The approach is clearly grounded in practise, thus including knowledge from the empirical field in combination with field relevant theoretical knowledge. The first phase of the project seeks to understand the research field, presenting relevant theories, knowledge about prior and similar projects. The first part being about the theoretical and practical field of ubiquitous and pervasive technologies and uses of these, including a learning approach Ubiquitous Learning(Cope & Kalantzis, 2010, Burbules, 2010, Thomas, 2006) that bases its theory of learning and educational practises on the above mentioned technologies. The second part tries to understand the creational processes that take place in the storytelling approach, as a construction of meaning through practise and experimentation, which is the base of the contructionist learning theory (Papert, 1980, Ackermann,2001). Third part draws its knowledge mainly from a workshop created to include the practitioners within the field in the design process, in this case school teachers and tour guides. These three areas of interest are, in the second phase, condensed into a set of design principles, and set in our developed TELT-model , that we, based on our research, conclude should be a part of designing a digital learning tool. The three sides being technological knowledge, empirical knowledge and theoretical knowledge of learning as three factors that influence, deepen and restrict each other in the design process. In the third phase we present our design and two test scenarios representing the two parts of the app, as mentioned before. The data received through post-test semi-structured interviews and observations of practice, is analyzed using a post-phenomenological approach (Ihde, 2009, Verbeek, 2005) to understand the interaction between technology and the user. These findings are discussed using the theories that build up the design principles that are being tested. Several important issues emerge from this process and build up the reflective and evaluating phase four, most important being the gap between the teachers’ didactical considerations and the constructionist and ubiquitous learning theories’ demand for student autonomy and self-motivated ideas. The lack of personal meaning in the stories produced, was due to the topic and restrictions provided by the results of the co-creation process in the workshop and the limits of the test scenarios. This led to deeper discussions of the concept of immersion, hailing from game theory it was a major part of the users’ understanding of the experience that they had with the Ubitour app, ranging from a feeling of complete absorption into the story, due to intricate use of location in storytelling, and the complete lack of immersive qualities, due to the short duration and overall quality of the story produced. This iteration of the design of the Ubitour app, concludes the potential as a proof of concept, based on the limited but constructive experiences our users had with especially the ubitour that wasn’t designed by the students themselves, but by us and other professionals, which essentially disproves the constructionist approach in this particular iteration. The choice to include the practitioners is important in regards to our design principles, but in reality it shows the complexity of building digital tools for a school system that still, mainly bases its education on curricular goals instead of a pragmatic and constructionist approach that focuses on children’s self motivated engagement in meaningful experience with technological tools. Keywords: Ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, Ubiquitous learning, Constructionist learning, Immersive learning experiences, digital storytelling, Post phenomenology, Design based research
Udgivelsesdato1 aug. 2016
Antal sider78
ID: 237800835