• Gábor Szabó
4. semester, Global Refugee Studies, Kandidat (Kandidatuddannelse)
Populism is on the rise in the European Union and as a consequence, populism became a central topic of the media and academics in the region. However, the definition of populism is not as simple and media outlets tend to label leaders, parties, ideologies or even only speeches as populist with rather different character. The paper examines what populism is exactly through the example of Fidesz- KDNP government of Hungary led by Viktor Orbán as the Prime Minister between 2010 and 2019. Viktor Orbán has been called a populist leader many times and has been criticized for his populist actions by the media, however, it is rarely defined what is meant by populist governance. The paper examines how the leadership of Viktor Orbán and the Fidesz- KDNP confirm the academic aspects of populism. The paper researches the question if the current Hungarian government is a populist government and if so, how it is realized in its politics. The paper identifies the type of Hungarian populism as political, conservative right wing populism. The paper also examines the different characteristics of populism, which all could be detected in the case of the Hungarian government: the government claims to challenge the elite, it does not have a clear political agenda, it uses propaganda in its political messages, it argues for the maintenance of a Christian Hungary, it has a charismatic leader in the person of Viktor Orbán and lastly, it strongly criticizes the European Union. Also, the paper identifies all techniques populists use to maintain their power in the case of the Hungarian government. The government interferes in matters that should be independent from the state such as education and jurisdiction; it uses mass clientelism to reward its supporters and threatens its critiques and it also criticizes NGOs. When looking at the origins of popularity of Fidesz, the paper identifies, that Hungarian government is popular due to a complex set of issues, which include the loss of trust in left- wing politics, the creation of a central issue against which the government proposes resolution and creation from a perception of professionalism. The paper concludes that the current Hungarian government fits all aspects of populism with their actions, which include the occupation of state mechanism, the limitation of political and civil rights, clientelism and the usage of propaganda and conspiracy theories.

Antal sider46
ID: 312460561