• Gianmaria Lenti
4. semester, Global Refugee Studies, Kandidat (Kandidatuddannelse)
The present investigation aspires to examine, understand and analyze significant processes of domination and resistance characterizing the journeys of Central-Americans who are coerced to travel unauthorizedly and embrace dangerous migratory processes across Mexico, while nourishing the hope of reaching USA.
It is within this complex panorama of unauthorized migration that domination manifests in the severity of the anti-immigration regime imposed by USA, expressed by strict visa requirements imposed to Central-Americans, functioning as an instrument to refrain undesired migratory flows from the Global South. The preventive hardening allowed by visa restrictions has been complemented by intensive processes of securitization, giving origin to one of the most surveilled frontiers in the world. Furthermore, political maneuvers of borders’ extraterritorialization have helped consolidating a new frontier extending far beyond USA’s confines, extending across the Mexican territory. Concurrently, Mexico experiences an increase in rhizomic processes of militarization intended to stop migrants, even before approaching the US border. In this sense, domination manifests in the socially detrimental consequences of US-Mexican politics that helped in developing an alarming humanitarian crisis, by denying these migrants access to basic rights. These circumstances positions them under conditions of marginality and exclusion, while coercing them to undertake unbearable journeys that are accompanied of serious risks of beating; exploitation; robbery; extortion; sexual abuse; kidnapping and murder. Suggestively, this is a latent reality made possible by the legislatively constructed condition of 'illegality'.
It is fundamental to approach a comprehensive understanding vis-à-vis the power structures that legitimized the existence of these excruciating journeys, as they are systematically endured by these migrants. Importantly, this paper efforts to move beyond the victimizing perspective, which depicts migrants as inert paws who suffer passively, the direct and indirect effects of anti-immigration establishments. Contrarily, this work rather endeavors to achieve a better understanding of the role played by these migrants who continuously engage in tenacious processes of resistance, aimed at struggling for the realization of their objectives. Accordingly, extensive ethnographic fieldwork in focal points of the trans-Mexican scenario, in conjunction with the employment of a multifarious methodological approach, afforded a relevant comprehension of important tactics and strategies designed by these migrants to confront, elude or bypass life-threatening circumstances and obstacles characteristic of the trans-Mexican routes. In addition, the wisdom, survival skills and coping strategies required to withstand the journey’s strenuous hardships remain alive within this community at all times. Specifically, the present research explores diverse approaches related to the trans-Mexican journey, considering for instance migrants’ relationship with numerous and different territories, ecosystems and perils, characterizing the vast extension of Mexico and the places traveled by them, utilizing precarious means of transportation as a marginalized group. This analysis emphasizes the extraordinary manifestations of agency that flourish within migrants’ ability to overcome insurmountable difficulties and obstacles, by creatively employing ‘tools’ provided by their identities, subjectivities and cultural backgrounds. These migrants utilize this knowledge by taking advantage of ‘elements’ provided by the local environments they transit and temporarily inhabit. It is attempted to examine herein migrants’ engagement in practices of resistance individually and also, as a collective entity that consolidate robust solidarity bonds between people from different countries, who share analogous subjection to several forms of domination, making them participate in tenacious processes of resistance. Between members of this community, copious flows of information, suggestions, warrants and strategies are shared consistently, while shaping the appearance of a culture of survival that assists them along the dangerous Mexican routes. Concomitantly, mutual assistance and protection amongst migrants represent an important 'weapon' employed by these individuals along their everyday struggles for survival. Additionally, particular relevance is given herein, to collateral actors and networks who cover a crucial role in assisting these migrants morally and materially, by manifesting profound expressions of solidarity, fraternity, humanity and brotherhood that incisively nourish migrants’ hopes, while also supporting them along their resolute processes of resistance.
Udgivelsesdatojun. 2015
Antal sider94
ID: 213387255