Den britiske afkolonisering af Afrika: En komparativ analyse af Ghana og Kenya

Studenteropgave: Kandidatspeciale og HD afgangsprojekt

  • Morten Poulsen
4. semester, Historie, Kandidat (Kandidatuddannelse)
The theme of this dissertation is the British decolonisation of its possesses in the tropical Africa. The purpose is to determine the reasons for the rapid decolonisation, which took place after the ending of the Second World War. The study has been constructed as a comparative analysis of respectively the Gold Coast and Kenya’s roads towards independence and the study starts from the following examining question: What were the reasons for the rapid, British decolonisation of the African colonies, The Gold Coast and Kenya, and which factors were decisive in relation to the fact that the decolonisation elapsed the way it did? Normally, three main explanation models are stated when reasons for the decolonisation shall be determined and these are the domestic, international and colonial reasons. After a thorough examination of the historical data, the colonial reasons have been identified as the area in which the most fruitful explanation models exist. It is therefore with starting point in the development of the colonies that the determining factors, and thereby the answer to the examining question, shall be found and it is therefore here that the dissertation lays its emphasis. When reasons for the decolonisation shall be found, the Second World War is a significant break, which was contributory to reinforce some of the movements that already, before the war, existed in the colonies in Africa. Within the time frame, the dissertation therefore also takes its starting point after the War. Yet, by way of introduction, some conditions have been set out where the British colonial policies, before the Second World War and which position the British Empire was in immediately after the War, have been described. This has been done to clarify the Second World War’s importance for the decolonisation and to explain the longer development tendencies in the colonies. Next, the two colonies’ different roads towards independence have been described and the Brits’ policies in relation to them have been compared in preparation for answering the examining question. When reasons for the British decolonisation shall be explained, it is necessary to involve parts of the three explanation models since all three of them contain elements that can explain larger or smaller parts of the reasons for the decolonisation. However, when the most significant factors shall be identified, the study has shown that the colonial explanation models are the most conclusive. It was very much the political mobilisation of a political élite in the African colonies who put a pressure on the British decision makers. This élite had great power of penetration in very wide parts of the African population and it could thereby mobilise the widespread dissatisfaction, which existed amongst not least the urban population and channel it towards the colonial power. Seen in the light of this mobilisation, the British analysis also showed that it would only be possible to maintain the control with the British colonies with large financial and military costs as a result. The Brits therefore chose to carry out the rapid decolonisation of the colonies in Africa.
Antal sider80
Udgivende institutionHistoriestudiet, Aalborg Universitet
ID: 18261803